Yunan Matematiği
Greek mathematics, as that term is used in this article, is the mathematics written in Greek, developed from the 6th century BC to the 5th century AD around the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean. The word "mathematics" itself derives from the ancient Greek μαθημα (mathema), meaning "subject of instruction".[1]. The study of mathematics for its own sake and the use of generalized mathematical theories and proofs is the key difference between Greek mathematics and those of preceding civilizations. Chronology of ancient Greek mathematicians c. 624 BC - c.546 BC - Thales 585 BC - 525 BC - Anaximenes of Miletus c. 582 BC – 507 BC - Pythagoras c. 490 BC - c. 420 BC - Oenopides of Chios 480 BC - 411 BC - Antiphon the Sophist 465 BC - 398 BC - Theodorus of Cyrene c. 450 BC - c. 370 BC - Democritus c. 417 BC – 369 BC - Theaetetus (mathematician) 410 BC/408 BC - 355 BC/347 BC - Eudoxus of Cnidus 400 BC - 350 BC - Thymaridas c. 390 BC- c. 320 BC - Dinostratus 384 BC – 322 BC - Aristotle 380 BC 320 BC - Menaechmus 370 BC - 300 BC - Aristaeus the Elder c. 370 BC – c. 300 BC - Callippus c. 360 BC - c. 290 BC - Autolycus of Pitane 340 BC – 278 BC - Polyaenus of Lampsacus c. 323 BC- c. 283 BC - Euclid c. 287 BC – 212 BC - Archimedes c. 280 BC - c. 220 BC - Conon of Samos 276 BC - 194 BC - Eratosthenes c. 262 BC – c. 190 BC - Apollonius of Perga c. 190 BC – c. 120 BC - Hipparchus c. 160 BC – c. 100 BC - Theodosius of Bithynia c. 150 BC - ? - Perseus (geometer) 1st century BC - Geminus c. 60 - 120 - Nicomachus c. 70 – c. 135 - Theon of Smyrna c. 70 - c. 140 - Menelaus of Alexandria c. 200/214 – c. 284/298 - Diophantus c. 290 - c. 350 - Pappus of Alexandria c. 335 - c. 405 - Theon of Alexandria c. 370 - 415 - Hypatia of Alexandria c. 412 - 485 - Proclus c. 420 - 480 - Domninus of Larissa c. 480 - 540 - Eutocius Full List of Greek Mathematicians in our archiveAnaxagoras Anthemius Antiphon Apollonius Archimedes Archytas Aristaeus Aristarchus Aristotle Autolycus of Pitane Bryson Callippus Chrysippus Cleomedes Conon Democritus Dinostratus Diocles Dionysodorus Diophantus Domninus Eratosthenes Euclid Eudemus of Rhodes Eudoxus Eutocius Geminus Heraclides of Pontus Heron Hipparchus Hippias Hippocrates Hypatia Hypsicles Leucippus Marinus of Neapolis Menaechmus Menelaus Nicomachus Nicomedes Oenopides of Chios Pappus Perseus Philon of Byzantium Plato Porphyry Posidonius Proclus Ptolemy Pythagoras Serenus Simplicius Sporus Thales Theaetetus Theodorus Theodosius Theon of Alexandria Theon of Smyrna Thymaridas Xenocrates Zeno of Elea Zeno of Sidon Zenodorus Greek Mathematicans/PhilosophersAnaxagoras Antiphon Archytas Aristotle Chrysippus Cleomedes Democritus Eudoxus Heraclides of Pontus Hippias Hypatia Leucippus Plato Porphyry Posidonius Proclus Ptolemy Pythagoras Simplicius Thales Xenocrates Zeno of Elea Greek Mathematicians/AstronomersApollonius Archimedes Aristarchus Aristotle Autolycus of Pitane Callippus Cleomedes Conon Democritus Eratosthenes Euclid Eudoxus Eutocius Geminus Heraclides of Pontus Heron Hipparchus Hypsicles Menelaus Pappus Plato Porphyry Posidonius Proclus Ptolemy Simplicius Thales Theodosius Theon of Alexandria Theon of Smyrna Greek Mathematicians/Astronomers/PhilosophersAristotle Cleomedes Democritus Eudoxus Heraclides of Pontus Plato Porphyry Posidonius Proclus Ptolemy Simplicius Thales Greek Circle squarersAnaxagoras Antiphon Apollonius Archimedes Bryson Carpus Dinostratus Hippias Hippocrates Nicomedes Oenopides Sporus Origins of Greek mathematics The origins of Greek mathematics are not easily documentable.[2] While no direct evidence is available, it is generally thought that the neighboring Babylonians and Egyptians had an influence on the younger Greek tradition.[2] Between 800 BC and 600 BC Greek mathematics generally lagged behind Greek literature, and there is very little known about Greek mathematics from this period—nearly all of which was passed down through later authors, beginning in the mid-4th century BC.[3] Classical Period Historians traditionally place the beginning of Greek mathematics proper to the age of Thales of Miletus (ca. 624 - 548 BC). Little is known about the life and work of Thales, so little indeed that his day of birth and death are estimated from the eclipse of 585 BCE, which probably occurred while he was in his prime. Despite this, it is generally agreed that Thales is the first of the seven wise men of Greece. The Theorem of Thales, which states that an angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle, may have been learned by Thales while in Babylon but tradition attributes to Thales a demonstration of the theorem. It is for this reason that Thales is often hailed as the father of the deductive organization of mathematics and as the first true mathematician. Thales is also thought to be the earliest known man in history to whom specific mathematical discoveries have been attributed. Although it is not known whether or not Thales was the one who introduced into mathematics the logical structure that is so ubiquitous today, it is known that within two hundred years of Thales the Greeks had introduced logical structure and the idea of proof into mathematics. Statue of Euclid in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Another important figure in the development of Greek mathematics is Pythagoras of Samos (ca. 580 - 500 BC). Like Thales, Pythagoras also traveled to Egypt and Babylon, then under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar,[3][4] but settled in Croton, Magna Graecia. Pythagoras established an order called the Pythagoreans, which held knowledge and property in common and hence all of the discoveries by individual Pythagoreans were attributed to the order. And since in antiquity it was customary to give all credit to the master, Pythagoras himself was given credit for the discoveries made by his order. Aristotle for one refused to attribute anything specifically to Pythagoras as an individual and only discussed the work of the Pythagoreans as a group. One of the most important characteristics of the Pythagorean order was that it maintained that the pursuit of philosophical and mathematical studies was a moral basis for the conduct of life. Indeed, the words "philosophy" (love of wisdom) and "mathematics" (that which is learned) are said to have been coined by Pythagoras. From this love of knowledge came many achievements. It has been customarily said that the Pythagoreans discovered most of the material in the first two books of Euclid's Elements. Distinguishing the work of Thales and Pythagoras from that of later and earlier mathematicians is difficult since none of their original works survives, except for possibly the surviving "Thales-fragments", which are of disputed reliability. However, many[5] historians have argued that much of the mathematical knowledge ascribed to Thales was in fact developed later, particularly the aspects that rely on the concept of angles, while the use of general statements may have appeared earlier, such as those found on Greek legal texts inscribed on slabs.[6] The reason that it is not clear exactly what either Thales or Pythagoras actually did is that almost no contemporary documentation has survived. The only evidence comes from traditions recorded in works such as Proclus’ commentary on Euclid written centuries later. Some of these later works, such as Aristotle’s commentary on the Pythagoreans, are themselves only known from a few surviving fragments. Thales is supposed to have used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids based on the length of shadows, and the distance of ships from the shore. He is also credited by tradition with having made the first proof of a geometric theorem - the "Theorem of Thales" described above. Pythagoras is widely credited with recognizing the mathematical basis of musical harmony, and according to Proclus' commentary on Euclid he discovered the theory of proportionals and constructed regular solids. Some modern historians have questioned whether he really constructed all five regular solids, suggesting instead that it is more reasonable to assume that he constructed just three of them. Some ancient sources attribute the discovery of the Pythagorean theorem to Pythagoras, whereas others claim it was a proof for the theorem that he discovered. Modern historians believe that the principle itself was known to the Babylonians and likely imported from them. The Pythagoreans regarded numerology and geometry as fundamental to understanding the nature of the universe and therefore central to their philosophical and religious ideas. They are credited with numerous mathematical advances, such as the discovery of irrational numbers. Historians credit them with a major role in the development of Greek mathematics (particularly number theory and geometry) into a coherent logical system based on clear definitions and proven theorems that was considered to be a subject worthy of study in its own right, without regard to the practical applications that had been the primary concern of the Egyptians and Babylonians. [3][4] Hellenistic The Hellenistic period began in the 4th century BC with Alexander the Great's conquest of the eastern Mediterranean, Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Iranian plateau, Central Asia, and parts of India, leading to the spread of the Greek language and culture across these areas. Greek became the language of scholarship throughout the Hellenistic world, and Greek mathematics merged with Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics to give rise to a Hellenistic mathematics. The most important centre of learning during this period was Alexandria in Egypt, which attracted scholars from across the Hellenistic world, mostly Greek and Egyptian, but also Jewish, Persian, Phoenician and even Indian scholars.[7] Most of the mathematical texts written in Greek have been found in Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Sicily. The Antikythera mechanism, an ancient mechanical calculator. Archimedes was able to use infinitesimals in a way that is similar to modern integral calculus. By assuming a proposition to be true and showing that this would lead to a contradiction, he could give answers to problems to an arbitrary degree of accuracy, while specifying the limits within which the answer lay. This technique is known as the method of exhaustion, and he employed it to approximate the value of π (Pi). In The Quadrature of the Parabola, Archimedes proved that the area enclosed by a parabola and a straight line is 4/3 times the area of a triangle with equal base and height. He expressed the solution to the problem as an infinite geometric series, whose sum was 4/3. In The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes set out to calculate the number of grains of sand that the universe could contain. In doing so, he challenged the notion that the number of grains of sand was too large to be counted, devising his own counting scheme based on the myriad, which denoted 10,000. Greek mathematics and astronomy reached a rather advanced stage during Hellenism, with scholars such as Hipparchus, Posidonius and Ptolemy, capable of the construction of simple analogue computers such as the Antikythera mechanism. Achievements Greek mathematics constitutes a major period in the history of mathematics, fundamental in respect of geometry and the idea of formal proof. Greek mathematics also contributed importantly to ideas on number theory, mathematical analysis, applied mathematics, and, at times, approached close to integral calculus. Well-known figures in Greek mathematics include Pythagoras, a shadowy figure from the isle of Samos associated partly with number mysticism and numerology, but more commonly with his theorem, and Euclid, who is known for his Elements, a canon of geometry for many centuries. The most characteristic product of Greek mathematics may be the theory of conic sections, largely developed in the Hellenistic period. The methods used made no explicit use of algebra, nor trigonometry. Transmission and the manuscript tradition Although the earliest Greek language texts on mathematics that have been found were written after the Hellenistic period, many of these are considered to be copies of works written during and before the Hellenistic period. Nevertheless, the dates of Greek mathematics are more certain than the dates of earlier mathematical writing, since a large number of chronologies exist that, overlapping, record events year by year up to the present day. Even so, many dates are uncertain; but the doubt is a matter of decades rather than centuries. During the Middle Ages, Europe derived much of its knowledge of Greek mathematics via Islamic mathematics. The texts of Greek mathematics were for the most part preserved and transmitted in the Muslim world. For instance, the oldest surviving Latin version of Euclid's Elements is a 12th century translation from Arabic. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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